Monteverde Cloud Forest Biological Reserve's climate is strongly influenced by air currents saturated with moisture that flow into the country from the northeast (trade winds). As you climb the Tilarán Mountain Range, orographic precipitation occurs as a result of the cooling it undergoes, or fog, which characterizes the main cloud forest in the area. These conditions produce a noticeable tropical rainy climate, where the seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall is minimal; both remain high throughout the year.
The Caribbean slope is exposed to moisture-laden winds that rise when striking the mountain range, causing abundant rainfall. In the higher parts, the wind force is very strong. This produces a great mechanical stress on the vegetation, which determines its aspect. In addition, the persistent cloud causes the specific conditions for the development of the cloud forest. The Pacific slope is less humid and the dry winds, moisture free due to rainfall in the highlands of the mountain range, have a strong drying effect, especially in the areas that have been stripped of its vegetative cover. There is still a relatively high amount of rainfall and humidity within the reserve and the surrounding area of Monteverde. The forest reaches its maximum height in the gullies and wind protected areas.
According to reports from the National Meteorological Institute (2005) of data taken at Monteverde station, which is situated northwest of the reserve at an altitude of 1,460 masl, over a period of 47 years from 1956 to 2003, the warmest months are April with a temperature of 23.7 ° C and May with a temperature of 23.4 ° C, while the coldest months are January with a temperature of 13.9 ° C, and February with a temperature of 13.8 ° C. The average annual temperature is 18.8 ° C. As for precipitation, the institute reported an annual average of 2,579 mm. September and October are the with the most rain (405 mm and 428.6 mm respectively), and March and April, with the least rain (34 , 6 mm and 49.7 mm respectively).↑ Back to top